Slavery In The Old South Essay Writer
By 1830 slavery was primarily located in the South, where it existed in many different forms. African Americans were enslaved on small farms, large plantations, in cities and towns, inside homes, out in the fields, and in industry and transportation.
Though slavery had such a wide variety of faces, the underlying concepts were always the same. Slaves were considered property, and they were property because they were black. Their status as property was enforced by violence -- actual or threatened. People, black and white, lived together within these parameters, and their lives together took many forms.
Enslaved African Americans could never forget their status as property, no matter how well their owners treated them. But it would be too simplistic to say that all masters and slaves hated each other. Human beings who live and work together are bound to form relationships of some kind, and some masters and slaves genuinely cared for each other. But the caring was tempered and limited by the power imbalance under which it grew. Within the narrow confines of slavery, human relationships ran the gamut from compassionate to contemptuous. But the masters and slaves never approached equality.
The standard image of Southern slavery is that of a large plantation with hundreds of slaves. In fact, such situations were rare. Fully 3/4 of Southern whites did not even own slaves; of those who did, 88% owned twenty or fewer. Whites who did not own slaves were primarily yeoman farmers. Practically speaking, the institution of slavery did not help these people. And yet most non-slaveholding white Southerners identified with and defended the institution of slavery. Though many resented the wealth and power of the large slaveholders, they aspired to own slaves themselves and to join the priviledged ranks. In addition, slavery gave the farmers a group of people to feel superior to. They may have been poor, but they were not slaves, and they were not black. They gained a sense of power simply by being white.
In the lower South the majority of slaves lived and worked on cotton plantations. Most of these plantations had fifty or fewer slaves, although the largest plantations have several hundred. Cotton was by far the leading cash crop, but slaves also raised rice, corn, sugarcane, and tobacco. Many plantations raised several different kinds of crops.
Besides planting and harvesting, there were numerous other types of labor required on plantations and farms. Enslaved people had to clear new land, dig ditches, cut and haul wood, slaughter livestock, and make repairs to buildings and tools. In many instances, they worked as mechanics, blacksmiths, drivers, carpenters, and in other skilled trades. Black women carried the additional burden of caring for their families by cooking and taking care of the children, as well as spinning, weaving, and sewing.
Some slaves worked as domestics, providing services for the master's or overseer's families. These people were designated as "house servants," and though their work appeared to be easier than that of the "field slaves," in some ways it was not. They were constantly under the scrutiny of their masters and mistresses, and could be called on for service at any time. They had far less privacy than those who worked the fields.
Because they lived and worked in such close proximity, house servants and their owners tended to form more complex relationships. Black and white children were especially in a position to form bonds with each other. In most situations, young children of both races played together on farms and plantations. Black children might also become attached to white caretakers, such as the mistress, and white children to their black nannies. Because they were so young, they would have no understanding of the system they were born into. But as they grew older they would learn to adjust to it in whatever ways they could.
The diets of enslaved people were inadequate or barely adequate to meet the demands of their heavy workload. They lived in crude quarters that left them vulnerable to bad weather and disease. Their clothing and bedding were minimal as well. Slaves who worked as domestics sometimes fared better, getting the castoff clothing of their masters or having easier access to food stores.
The heat and humidity of the South created health problems for everyone living there. However, the health of plantation slaves was far worse than that of whites. Unsanitary conditions, inadequate nutrition and unrelenting hard labor made slaves highly susceptible to disease. Illnesses were generally not treated adequately, and slaves were often forced to work even when sick. The rice plantations were the most deadly. Black people had to stand in water for hours at a time in the sweltering sun. Malaria was rampant. Child mortality was extremely high on these plantations, generally around 66% -- on one rice plantation it was as high as 90%.
One of the worst conditions that enslaved people had to live under was the constant threat of sale. Even if their master was "benevolent," slaves knew that a financial loss or another personal crisis could lead them to the auction block. Also, slaves were sometimes sold as a form of punishment. And although popular sentiment (as well as the economic self-interest on the part of the owners) encouraged keeping mothers and children and sometimes fathers together, these norms were not always followed. Immediate families were often separated. If they were kept together, they were almost always sold away from their extended families. Grandparents, sisters, brothers, and cousins could all find themselves forcibly scattered, never to see each other again. Even if they or their loved ones were never sold, slaves had to live with the constant threat that they could be.
African American women had to endure the threat and the practice of sexual exploitation. There were no safeguards to protect them from being sexually stalked, harassed, or raped, or to be used as long-term concubines by masters and overseers. The abuse was widespread, as the men with authority took advantage of their situation. Even if a woman seemed agreeable to the situation, in reality she had no choice. Slave men, for their part, were often powerless to protect the women they loved.
The drivers, overseers, and masters were responsible for plantation discipline. Slaves were punished for not working fast enough, for being late getting to the fields, for defying authority, for running away, and for a number of other reasons. The punishments took many forms, including whippings, torture, mutilation, imprisonment, and being sold away from the plantation. Slaves were even sometimes murdered. Some masters were more "benevolent" than others, and punished less often or severely. But with rare exceptions, the authoritarian relationship remained firm even in those circumstances.
In addition to the authority practiced on individual plantations, slaves throughout the South had to live under a set of laws called the Slave Codes. The codes varied slightly from state to state, but the basic idea was the same: the slaves were considered property, not people, and were treated as such. Slaves could not testify in court against a white, make contracts, leave the plantation without permission, strike a white (even in self-defense), buy and sell goods, own firearms, gather without a white present, possess any anti-slavery literature, or visit the homes of whites or free blacks. The killing of a slave was almost never regarded as murder, and the rape of slave women was treated as a form of trespassing.
Whenever there was a slave insurrection, or even the rumor of one, the laws became even tighter. At all times, patrols were set up to enforce the codes. These patrols were similar to militias and were made up of white men who were obligated to serve for a set period. The patrols apprehended slaves outside of plantations, and they raided homes and any type of gathering, searching for anything that might lead to insurrection. During times of insurrection -- either real or rumored -- enraged whites formed vigilance committees that terrorized, tortured, and killed blacks.
While most slaves were concentrated on the plantations, there were many slaves living in urban areas or working in rural industry. Although over 90% of American slaves lived in rural areas, slaves made up at least 20% of the populations of most Southern cities. In Charleston, South Carolina, slaves and free blacks outnumbered whites. Many slaves living in cities worked as domestics, but others worked as blacksmiths, carpenters, shoemakers, bakers, or other tradespeople. Often, slaves were hired out by their masters, for a day or up to several years. Sometimes slaves were allowed to hire themselves out. Urban slaves had more freedom of movement than plantation slaves and generally had greater opportunities for learning. They also had increased contact with free black people, who often expanded their ways of thinking about slavery.
Slaves resisted their treatment in innumerable ways. They slowed down their work pace, disabled machinery, feigned sickness, destroyed crops. They argued and fought with their masters and overseers. Many stole livestock, other food, or valuables. Some learned to read and write, a practice forbidden by law. Some burned forests and buildings. Others killed their masters outright -- some by using weapons, others by putting poison in their food. Some slaves comitted suicide or mutilated themselves to ruin their property value. Subtly or overtly, enslaved African Americans found ways to sabotage the system in which they lived.
Thousands of slaves ran away. Some left the plantation for days or weeks at a time and lived in hiding. Others formed maroon communities in mountains, forests or swamps. Many escaped to the North. There were also numerous instances of slave revolts throughout the history of the institution. (For one white interpretation of slave resistance, see Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race) Even when slaves acted in a subservient manner, they were often practicing a type of resistance. By fooling the master or overseer with their behavior, they resisted additional ill treatment.
Enslaved African Americans also resisted by forming community within the plantation setting. This was a tremendous undertaking for people whose lives were ruled by domination and forced labor. Slaves married, had children, and worked hard to keep their families together. In their quarters they were able to let down the masks they had to wear for whites. There, black men, women, and children developed an underground culture through which they affirmed their humanity. They gathered in the evenings to tell stories, sing, and make secret plans. House servants would come down from the "big house" and give news of the master and mistress, or keep people laughing with their imitations of the whites.
It was in their quarters that many enslaved people developed and passed down skills which allowed them to supplement their poor diet and inadequate medical care with hunting, fishing, gathering wild food, and herbal medicines. There, the adults taught their children how to hide their feelings to escape punishment and to be skeptical of anything a white person said. Many slave parents told their children that blacks were superior to white people, who were lazy and incapable of running things properly.
Many slaves turned to religion for inspiration and solace. Some practiced African religions, including Islam, others practiced Christianity. Many practiced a brand of Christianity which included strong African elements. Most rejected the Christianity of their masters, which justified slavery. The slaves held their own meetings in secret, where they spoke of the New Testament promises of the day of reckoning and of justice and a better life after death, as well as the Old Testament story of Moses leading his people out of slavery in Egypt. The religion of enslaved African Americans helped them resist the degredation of bondage.
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"Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race"
Letter from Henry Tayloe on the domestic slave trade
E. S. Abdy description of a Washington, D.C., slave pen
George Fitzhugh advocates slavery
A slave experience of being sold south
The case of Mrs. Margaret Douglass
Nell Irvan Painter on soul murder and slavery
Literature of the Antebellum South
The historical epoch concerning the American South from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the eruption of the Civil War in 1861 is usually designated “antebellum,” or simply referred to as the period of the Old South. While the region stretching north to south from Virginia to Florida and east to west from Georgia to Texas represents a vast area of considerable geographical diversity, in the first six decades of the nineteenth century it was bound by a number of important social, economic, and political factors. Principal among these was the existence of black slavery, a practice that sustained the primarily rural and agricultural South. After about 1820, few in the Southern experience could avoid the presence of slavery. Cotton, the region's largest cash crop, was grown throughout the expanse of the South on enormous plantations and required vast amounts of inexpensive labor in order to be profitable for planters. As slavery became an established institution, it began to elicit concern in the remainder of the United States where it was illegal. Additional regional differences, such as the decentralized, agrarian existence of the Old South, which differed sharply from that of the more industrialized, urbanized, and commercial North, also divided the nation. Antebellum writers made much of these dissimilarities by describing the South's economic and cultural “distinctiveness,” creating myths of the region's pastoral splendor and tirelessly defending the values of Southern society and the institutionalized practice of slavery. Such ideas eventually found their way into the prevailing fictional forms of the antebellum South: the historical romance, the domestic and sentimental novel, and the tale of backcountry humor. Meanwhile, Southern poetry at this time was generally the province of amateur gentlemen-poets and frequently expressed only conventional themes and forms. Because of these limitations, many subsequent commentators have observed that the antebellum period was remarkable for its lack of significant literary production. Nevertheless, a few writers are considered exceptional, including Edgar Allan Poe, acknowledged as the Old South's sole writer of genius; William Gilmore Simms, the prolific and representative antebellum author; and Henry Timrod, a gifted poet of the Civil War era.
The cornerstone of antebellum fiction was the historical romance. Novels concerning plantation life, sentimental love affairs, and backwoods adventures dominated the interest of the Southern reading public for decades. The historical romance genre owes an enormous debt to the wildly popular Waverley novels of the Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott, whose romantic narrative style spawned innumerable imitators in Europe and America. Among these novelists in the South, the Virginian George Tucker set the standard with The Valley of Shenandoah; or, Memoirs of the Graysons (1824), a somewhat melodramatic family saga featuring exaggerated language and conventional characters. Tucker's formula proved successful, and many other novelists, including William Alexander Caruthers, Nathaniel Beverly Tucker, John Esten Cooke, and John Pendleton Kennedy, produced works in a similar manner. Of these writers, Kennedy is generally recognized as the most gifted. His prototypical plantation romance Swallow Barn; or, A Sojourn in the Old Dominion (1832) defined the tropes of this picturesque and popular form that would endure well into the twentieth century. Like Tucker's novel, Swallow Barn took much from older fictional traditions. Its narrative features a Northern traveler who records his generally delighted reactions to the South—a device used effectively by Tucker as well as William Wirt in his popular 1803 volume of fictionalized essays entitled The Letters of the British Spy. In his subsequent novels, Kennedy also made skilled use of the elements of the historical adventure genre; his two novels Horse-Shoe Robinson (1835) and Rob of the Bowl: A Legend of St. Inigoe's (1835) look back romantically to Revolutionary War-era South Carolina and seventeenth-century Maryland, respectively. William A. Caruthers's The Cavaliers of Virginia; or, The Recluse of Jamestown (1834-35) fits a similar mold as it recounts the historical Bacon's Rebellion of 1676, while adding the familiar trappings of Gothic fiction. In The Knights of the Horseshoe (1845), Caruthers returned to colonial Virginia for another lively, heroic adventure. Of Beverly Tucker's major novels, George Balcombe (1836) is a frontier romance mostly set in backcountry Missouri, while The Partisan Leader: A Tale of the Future, published secretly in 1836, is an imaginative, allegorical look thirteen years hence after the Confederacy has seceded from the Union. While describing entertaining adventures and presenting a host of conventional types—the gentleman planter, the Southern belle, the opportunistic Northerner—the romances of George and Beverly Tucker, Kennedy, Caruthers, Cooke, and others conveyed to audiences the major themes of the Old South experience. Principal among these was one of the resounding and most enduring myths in Southern fiction: the image of the South as a pastoral paradise and a spiritually regenerative community. Likewise, as war with the North approached at mid-century, these and other apologetic writers increased their efforts to glorify and idealize the agrarian values of plantation life, facilely juxtaposing them with the greedy, materialistic, and commercial ethos of the North.
Antebellum short fiction was primarily the domain of the southwestern humorist. Augustus Baldwin Longstreet was probably the most renowned of these writers. His Georgia Scenes, Characters, Incidents, Etc. in the First Half Century of the Republic (1835) achieved national prominence as it amusingly described life in the South's hinterlands. Other important humorist collections include William Tappan Thompson's Major Jones's Scenes in Georgia (1843), James Jones Hooper's The Adventures of Captain Simon Suggs (1845), and Joseph G. Baldwin's Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi (1853). These compilations of popular, exaggerated, sometimes preposterous, but witty sketches of the Southern backcountry regions first appeared in local newspapers and regional periodicals but later were printed in national magazines such as the Southern Literary Messenger and the New York journal Spirit of the Times. Most of these humor writers were skilled amateurs who considered themselves professional lawyers, politicians, or journalists first, and authors second. One exception to the typical, Old South rule of literary amateurism, however, was William Gilmore Simms, a devoted writer who, critics have discerned, was a prominent literary spokesman for his region and age. Simms's collected works of fiction, poetry, criticism, and history comprise more than eighty volumes. Taken as a whole, these works are suffused with the antebellum spirit and feature Simms's fervent support of Southern values and culture. The Yemassee (1835) is generally regarded as his finest novel, detailing events of the early eighteenth-century wars between European settlers and Native Americans in Carolina. The subjects of Simms's historical romances range from the American Revolution (The Partisan, 1835) to life on the Southern frontier (Guy Rivers, 1834). Usually told with a directness that some commentators found distasteful, Simms's works were well known throughout the antebellum period, and if not esteemed as the most innovative publications of their age, continue to be regarded as the embodiment of regional Southern writing in the middle of the nineteenth-century.
The most influential literary periodical of the Old South was undoubtedly the Richmond-based Southern Literary Messenger. Published between 1834 and 1864, the Messenger established literary tastes for more than a decade longer than its closest competitor, the Southern Quarterly Review, in an age that saw scores of periodicals come and go. The Messenger published the work of the established poets of the early antebellum period, including Richard Henry Wilde, Edward Coate Pinkney, Thomas Holley Chivers, and Philip Pendleton Cooke. The verse of these writers was rather conventional and artificial, bound to earlier traditions rather than original in form or content. Still, critics have observed that a few of these poetic expressions, such as Wilde's romantic lyric “Lament of the Captive,” demonstrate both technical and aesthetic proficiency. Other writers, including William Gilmore Simms, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry Timrod, also made significant contributions to the poetry of the Old South. Simms, most notably in his evocative “The Edge of the Swamp,” shared much in terms of style and sensibility with his earlier counterparts. Edgar Allan Poe, meanwhile, stands apart from his contemporaries of the Old South as the writer who demonstrated unrivaled artistic skill and a transcendent literary genius. While critics unquestionably perceive Poe as a writer of world significance, some contention does remain as to his “Southernness.” Though born in Boston, he considered himself a Virginian. Unlike Simms and many of his contemporaries, however, Poe generally eschewed political and ideological endorsements of the South, focusing his efforts on the aesthetic qualities of composition in order to produce haunting poetry and enigmatic, psychological short fiction. As a lyric poet he created such renowned pieces as “To Helen” and “The Raven.” Poe's brilliance in fiction can be seen in his mastery of the short story form, his seminal contribution to the detective genre (notably “The Gold Bug,” 1843), and his manipulation of the symbolic and grotesque to achieve heightened thematic and visceral effects, perhaps best illustrated in his 1839 tale “The Fall of the House of Usher.” Poe also worked briefly as an editor of the Southern Literary Messenger, contributing to a four-fold increase in the periodical's readership. After Poe, Henry Timrod is generally considered the finest of the antebellum poets. Many of his greatest works were composed to glorify the birth of a new nation, the Confederacy, at the dawn of the Civil War, and are now seen as moving elegies to Southern defeat.
Women writers also made significant contributions to the literature of the antebellum South, acknowledged now by modern critics after decades of relative neglect. Although born in the North, Caroline Howard Gilman adopted Charleston, South Carolina, as her home and lived there throughout her literary career. She established and edited a literary magazine, Southern Rose, wrote poetry, and produced several notable works of fiction, including two sentimental novels, Recollections of a [New England] Housekeeper (1834) and Recollections of a Southern Matron (1838). Female novelists also offered their versions of the romance narrative, typified in the volumes of E. D. E. N. Southworth and Caroline Lee Hentz. Southworth's Retribution; or, The Vale of Shadows (1849) is an overblown tale of passion set on a Virginia plantation at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Other works by Southworth include The Curse of Clifton (1852) and a string of sensationalistic novels typically featuring melodramatic plots and dynamic heroines. Among Caroline Hentz's ten novels of the 1850s are such works as Ernest Linwood (1856), which examines the effects of unrestrained passion, and Eoline; or, Magnolia Vale (1852), a romance recounting the exploits of its independently minded young protagonist. Hentz's 1851 novel, The Northern Planter's Bride, is also included among her most well-known works, primarily because of its status as a fictional response to the Northern anti-slavery writings of the period.
Ubiquitous in the Old South, slavery was a significant subject for a number of antebellum Southern writers. The issue of enslaved blacks in the South had increasingly polarized the nation during the nineteenth century. The growing abolitionist movement in the North had a profound effect on Southern literature by mid-century, with writers penning numerous works of propaganda in order to combat the steady stream of anti-slavery material that was widely read and circulated in the North. While the white and generally affluent literary establishments of Richmond, Charleston, and New Orleans continued to defend the South and its reliance on slave labor in fiction, speeches, and essays, an alternative and opposing form of expression crystallized in the new genre of the slave narrative, giving voice to former slaves who had escaped to freedom in the North. Harriet Jacobs's Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself (1861) details her combined struggle as a woman, a mother, and a slave in the Old South and describes seven years spent living in her grandmother's tiny attic. The dismal and degrading existence of a slave was also recorded in The Narrative of William Wells Brown, a Fugitive Slave, Written by Himself (1847). Brown went on to produce fictional works as well, notably his novel Clotel; or, The President's Daughter (1853), based on the life of an illegitimate daughter of President Thomas Jefferson and one of his slaves. Numbered among the most outstanding attempts by a former slave to impress the dehumanizing effects of slavery on white readers, the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, by Himself (1845), remains a centerpiece of the slave narrative genre.